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Report On Illicit Small Arms And Light Weapons Proliferation And Fragility Situations (Republic Of South Sudan)
Report On Illicit Small Arms And Light Weapons Proliferation And Fragility Situations (Republic Of South Sudan)

Since independence in 2011, South Sudan has experienced various violent conflicts. This has resulted in instability and increased levels of poverty. According to the Funds for Peace, the Republic of South Sudan is the most fragile state in the world. Its levels of governance remain low and the propensity for the country to revert to conflicts remains high owing to the current political tensions. Illicit SALW proliferation is at the heart of this insecurity and the human development challenges it creates. Arms have facilitated protracted conflicts both within and outside the country, leading to the disruption of key economic activities and further impoverishment of the population.

The overall objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between proliferation of illicit SALW and fragile situations in South Sudan, and their impacts on development and livelihoods. Participants in the research included Civil Society Organizations, security agents, religious leaders, government officials, civil service members, academics and the general South Sudan populace. The research was conducted in different parts of South Sudan.

The findings of the study indicate that Fragility situations in South Sudan are manifested by proliferation of illicit SALW (85%), protracted armed conflict (76%), presence of internally displaced persons (IDPs) (68%), the presence of peacekeeping forces (65%) and the presence of humanitarian agencies (60%). On the other hand, the keys drivers of fragility in South Sudan are poor governance (76%), protracted conflict (74%), poverty(70%), proliferation of illicit SALW (64%), and ethnic and clan politics (60%).

The impact of fragility situations in South Sudan is profound. The study established that, the key affected sectors included security, tourism, foreign direct investment, health, education and the road infrastructure.

A number of legal frameworks and interventions have been put in place by the government and the international community with the objective of addressing the fragility situations. However, the challenges of protracted conflict, continued proliferation of illicit SALW, weak governance institutions and ethnic and clan-based politics still persists.

In building resilience, the study recommends strengthening of governance institutions, addressing proliferation of illicit SALW, reforming the public and security sectors and post conflict reconstruction among others.

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